Monday, February 24, 2020
Design thinking - Essay Example Just like problem solving, design is a ubiquitous and natural human activity. The beginning of the design process is where dissatisfaction and needs with the current state summed with determination that an action must be taken to solve a particular problem. Scientist from the scattered parts of the world acts as designers in their careers not knowing that they are participating in the design process (Frisendal, 2012). Design thinking has also gained attention in the setting of business. The reason behind the increased attention is that the design of services and products is a great component of business competitiveness. Most well known companies have indeed committed themselves to being design leaders. Though design thinking has recently become an important part of engineering fields, design, and business, it can bring positive effects to the 21st century education across many disciplines. The positive impacts can be since it involves creative thinking in delivering solutions to problems (Menges, 2011). In academic environments students are expected to read critically, think and reason in a logic manner and solve problems that are complex. Therefore, to help students succeed in the digital, interconnected world, educators should provide pupils with systems thinking, design thinking, and teamwork skills. In doing so, it will help them nature their skills of problem solving and prepare them for higher education and career (Ingle 2013). In many fields, knowledge is accumulated and generated through action. Thus, knowledge is utilized to produce work, and work is evaluated to produce knowledge. People who are creative usually work in two different ways. They can work as makers or finders. Finders show their creativity through discovery while makers, though are equally creative they are driven to synthesize what they are aware of in concepts, compositions, constructions, arrangements and patterns.
Friday, February 7, 2020
Management Business Questions - Essay Example Reorganization of a company is a sensitive step and the manager needs to have ultimate interpersonal skills in dealing with severance packages and reassigning works. The manager should be well prepared over the concept of reorganization and should be in a position to handle any type of questions posed by the employees related to the decision. The manager should be able to communicate the conditions and issues surrounding reorganization in an effective manner. Reorganization is not an easy thing to do and it will affect the employees and their families to a great extent and by commuting the problems and concerns effectively, the whole process of reassigning and offering of severance packages can be carried on smoothly. As a first step towards reassigning and layoff, the manager should call for individual meetings with the concerned employees. The change in title, department and work nature needs to be explained to them in an elaborate manner. Make the employee aware about the new reporting line, relocation, lessening of working hours and other issues that would affect their present status in the company. Situations like this demand excellent interpersonal skills which includes better management, organizing and communication skills. Hawthorne Studies is a way to improve productivity levels of an employee by creating a psychological belief that they are more important to the organization. It is a form of positive management tool that increases work performance of an employee by letting the person think that they are being singled out and are important to the organization. Employees always like getting the attention of the employer and they like the feeling of being important. The manager can accomplish the Hawthorne Studies by offering praise and expressing appreciation for the hard work put in by the employee. The key for effective Hawthorne effect accomplishment is to be aware about the circumstances when the productivity levels go up and when it comes
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Geography of Time Essay The sixth chapter Ã¢â¬Å"Where is Life FasterÃ¢â¬ discusses differences between life tempos in different cultures trying to reveal in what culture life is the fastest. The author writes that it is very interesting for him to compare one culture to another because a lot of unknown facts contributing development of psychological studies will be identified. AuthorsÃ¢â¬â¢ comparison focuses on time and speed of life. Cultural tempo is argued to affect the quality of human life. Nevertheless, it may be tricky to compare different cultures because labeling individuals should have scientific or psychological basis. It is necessary to go beyond the boundaries in order to measure the tempo of life with accuracy and objectivity. The author finds it interesting to compare indicator of speed in working office in different countries. However, the research has failed as the author needed to find observable jobs and workers should be residents of particular country. Research at gas station has failed as well, because such businesses are not equivalent across countries. According to authorÃ¢â¬â¢s research, the fastest countries are Japan and Western European countries. Western Europe has nine fastest countries and Japan is the only Asian countries with life tempo. The fist place in West Europe is given to Switzerland, whereas the second is given to Ireland. Ireland is characterized by the fastest walking speed, whereas Switzerland is characterized by the splendid findings. Surprisingly, New York hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t gained the highest scores as some workers in office move very slowly. In contrast, the slowest speed of life is observed in non-industrialized countries and it is the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America. The slowest is claimed to be Brazil, Indonesia and Mexico. Daily life in these countries is very slow and Brazilians, for example, Ã¢â¬Å"not only expected the casual approach of life, but had abandoned any semblance to of fidelity to the clockÃ¢â¬ . (p. 136) In such a way the author shows that there are many ways to measure speed of life and the results shows that different cultures has their own life tempo. Further, the author compares Japan, the USA and Western Europe to identify which of the countries is La Dolce Vita. Much of European countries are characterized by opportunities to relax and in the pleasures of good life. Therefore, Levine suggests that La dolce Vita is easier for Europeans rather than for Asians and Africans. For example, Japanese work harder and have less time for relaxing. Europeans are claimed to live better than Americans. La Dolce Vita is welcomed in Italy as they try to balance hard work and leisure. It is necessary to underline that working week is longer in the USA than in most of European countries. However, Japan is characterized by the longest working week. For more than half a century the working week hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been changed and it is argued that time for leisure is decreasing in the country and the nation has less time for themselves. In contrast, in Europe the tendency to work has been replaced by the tendency to relax. For example, without leisure workers in France are more irritating and nervous. Therefore, Western Europeans have more vacation time. For example, in France Ã¢â¬Å"workers by law receive at least five weeks and often six weeks of paid vacationÃ¢â¬ . (p. 143) When comparing countries examples of cultural differences are seen the most. However, speed of life varies across cities and regions of one country. It is true for the USA as well as the country is very large and each state has its own traditions and customs. The slightest geographical shifts are profound and for example, moving from Oklahoma to Texas is viewed as Ã¢â¬Å"entering France, say, out of SwitzerlandÃ¢â¬ . (p. 146) The author is willing to reveal whether there are differences between New York and other large cities. Research results demonstrate that Northeastern United States is viewed as fast-spaced, whereas Californians are more relaxed. Boston and New York are the fastest cities in the country, whereas Los-Angeles is claimed to be one of the slowest in the country. One of the biggest challenges was to measure accurately walking speed as in some regions it was hard to find any walkers at all.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Though Communism started in the early 1900s, its adverse effects are still felt in modern economies, global relations, and even literature such as Animal Farm by George Orwell. Communism started under the rule of Vladimir Lenin a man who brought prosperity and reform. Then it was passed down to the vengeful dictator Joseph Stalin. After several changes in power, it remains as an economic and political system. Like the animals in Animal Farm the people want a great change, and are willing to stop at no cost. However, like the Russian people they soon find out that by using communism to free them from bondage, they are only slaves to a new master and lose all reminisce of past culture. The winter of 1917 was one of the harshest winters Russia had faced in years. Food was scarce and the people were ravaged with disease. Peasants morosely toiled in the fields only to see their harvest consumed by the aristocracy. Each day was a prolonging of the inevitable revolution to come. However, like all great revolutions, they needed both an ideological leader, and one with the ability to carry out the actual revolution. These qualities were found in Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. Like Old Major in Animal Farm, Karl Marx spurs the revolution with the idea that the proletariats no longer have to be subservient to the Bourgeoisie (Marx xi). The animals had the incentive to follow Old Major, because he envisioned a totally equal society and wonders such as hot and cold water in all barns. A classless society appealed to the majority of Russians of whom 80% were serfs (Gottfried 79). Now that the ideological aspect had been taken care of they just needed someone to put the plan in to action. Vladimir Lenin was the head of the Bolshevik (those of ... ...Putin is the current Prime Minister of Russia and has said he wishes to run again in the next elections. Though the Cold War has been over for more than 19 years communism has soured Russian relations with the U.S. and all the countries it previously occupied. Russia is still undergoing economic and political transition, but like the animals in Animal Farm, in order to gain freedom they have become their own worst enemies; capitalists. In conclusion the deceiving lure of utopian communism is depicted in Animal Farm by George Orwell. Like the Russian people the animals hope to have a totally equal society, but for this dream they must sacrifice much more. They eventually succumb to totalitarian communism and in order to gain freedom must pay the ultimate price. For the animals it was becoming the humans and for the Russian people it was succumbing to capitalism.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Applying Organizational Psychology Scientific methodology is used in the field of organizational psychology. When people are happier in their work environment a company is more successful than having unhappy and less fulfilled employees. The objective of this paper is to achieve a better understanding of what organizational psychology is. It will discuss the issues and methods involved in the recruitment process for an organizational and applicant perspective. Finally, it will describe the concept of organizational socialization and how the principles of organizational psychology can be applied to organizational socialization. Organizational Psychology The formal meaning of organizational psychology is Ã¢â¬Å"the scientific study of individual and group behavior in formal organizational settingsÃ¢â¬ (Jex, 2002, p. 2). There are two types of organizational formal and informal. Formal organizations exhibit continuity overtime and often exist longer than the founding members (Jex, 2002). When the purpose is less explicit than for a formal organization it is considered to be an informal organization (Jex, 2002). In informal organization having goals in writing or even stated is doubtful (Jex, 2002). In an informal organization if members were to move on the group would not continue to exist (Jex, 2002). When looking at the definition of organizational psychology it is important to note that first, it uses methods of scientific inquiry to study and intervene in organizations (Jex, 2002). This means that the data-based approach is used. The data used comes from survey, interviews, observation, and sometimes organizational records (Jex, 2002). Second, it is intellectually rooted in psychology which focuses on individual behavior (Jex, 2002). This means that individual behavior is the most important mediating factor (Jex, 2002). Ã¢â¬Å"Groups and organizations donÃ¢â¬â¢t behave; people doÃ¢â¬ (Jex, 2002, p. 8). Organizational psychology is also a part of a broader field of industrial/organizational psychology also referred to as I/O psychology. The industrial side deals with recruitment, selection, classification, compensation, performance appraisal, and training (Jex & Britt, 2008). The organizational side deals with socialization, motivation, occupational stress, leadership, group performance, and organizational development (Jex & Britt, 2008). The industrial side is linked to management of human resources while the organizational side is linked to understanding and predicting behavior within the organization (Jex & Britt, 2008). There is a lot involved in the field of organizational psychology from enhanced organizational effectiveness to the economic well-being of society as a whole (Jex & Britt, 2008). Issues and Methods Involved in the Recruitment Process from an Organizational and Applicant Perspective. There are several important steps in the recruitment and selection process. These steps include strategic planning, sourcing candidates, preliminary screening, selection interviewing, and the selection. Strategic planning is the key in making hiring decisions that work with the organizational employment goals (Mayhew, 2011). A budget, evaluating resources, and the workforce needs assessment are included in the strategy (Mayhew, 2011). For sourcing candidates recruiters use methods such as cold calling and job fairs to find qualified applicants (Mayhew, 2011). Some of the sources that are used by organizations include some of the following: advertising, employment agencies, labor unions, career fairs, walk-ins, write-ins, and employer referrals (Jex & Britt, 2008). High-level positions focus on searching for candidates who have specialized skills or professional expertise (Mayhew, 2011). Internal promotion is based on performance, achievements and succession planning (Mayhew, 2011). The preliminary screening of applicants can be done by telephone to glean essential information, such as work history and the applicantÃ¢â¬â¢s professional background (Mayhew, 2011). These kind of interviews save the organization money while streamlining the field of candidates (Mayhew, 2011). Selection interviewing is a way to further define the selection of candidates by the recruiters and hiring managers (Mayhew, 2011). The use of behavioral interview questions helps predict how the candidate will perform in the job (Mayhew, 2011). To test the technical and functional expertise the use of situational and competency-based questions is used (Mayhew, 2011). During the interview process it can be a one-on-one interview or a panel of interviewers (Mayhew, 2011). The last part of the process is the selection. The person doing the hiring will use his or her notes, and personal observations to make what he or she feels is the best candidate for the job. Organizational Perspective. The hiring process through the eyes of organizational psychologist is to select, perfect, and persuade. The select process uses cognitive measures, personality profiles, interviews, and skills testing to find a fit between the candidate and the job (Crosby, 2011). Perfect is the duty of the psychologist to perfect the talent pool through training, coaching, and leadership development (Crosby, 2011). Finally, the psychologist uses persuasion to help organizations design programs that take into consideration the idiosyncrasies of human behavior (Crosby, 2011). People are the heartbeat of any business, neglect this fact and the business will not last long enough to talk about it (Crosby, 2011). For the organization the recruitment process is trying to attract potential employees by making the organization look its best (Jex & Britt, 2008). ApplicantÃ¢â¬â¢s Perspective. Applicants may make judgments about an organization based in whether or not he or she feels they fit in with the organization (Jex & Britt, 2008). The applicant will judge his or her own skills and abilities to see if they match that of the job (Jex & Britt, 2008). Once this is determined he or she may check out the organizational culture to see if this is compatible with his or her personality (Jex & Britt, 2008). This information may come from second hand information such as the organizations website, recruiting brochures, or may be his or her experiences as a consumer of the organization (Jex & Britt, 2008). Another area an applicant may judge if his or her perceived values match that of the organization. Values represent things, ideas, or goals that are important to peopleÃ¢â¬ (Jex & Britt, 2008, p. 66). if an organization is progressive regarding work-family initiatives this may attract the applicant or more ideological reasons such as joining the armed services due to the feelings of patriotism (Jex & Britt, 2008). Organizational Socialization Organizational socialization is a process where people learn about an organi zations culture and makes the transition from outsider to member (s. w. learning, 2011). This process affects an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and helps shape and maintain the organizations culture (s. . learning, 2011). Organizational socialization occurs in three stages. The first is anticipatory socialization that happens before joining the organization or taking a new job (s. w. learning, 2011). This stage prepares the applicant to enter the new job, give him or her first look at the culture of the organization, and develops the applicantÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations about the organization (s. w. learning, 2011). Two issues at this stage include the realism of self and organization and the congruence of self and organization (s. w. learning, 2011). Realism is the responsibility of both (s. w. learning, 2011). For the organization it is the positive and negative side of working for the company and for the potential employee it is to present an accurate picture of self (s. w. learning, 2011). Congruence knows that his or her skills and abilities are congruent with that of the company and do they satisfy his or her needs (s. w. learning, 2011). If there is a lack of these it could result in a high turnover, low satisfaction, low organizational commitment and poor job performance. The second stage is that of entry/encounter which occurs after entering the organization (s. w. learning, 2011). This is the breaking in stage. The new employee brings in expectations from the first stage, compares them to the reality of the organization, and is the time to learn the ropes (s. w. learning, 2011). The purpose of this stage is role clarification and to teach tasks, duties, and responsibilities, teach immediate workgroup norms such as social status, bases of power, informal leaders, and the performance norms (s. w. earning, 2011). The last stage is change or metamorphosis (s. w. learning, 2011). This is the settling in stage. It is a clear separation from stage two to stage three with rites and rituals. A successful metamorphosis includes being comfortable in the new role, some mastery of job requirements, acceptance of values, adjustment to group norms, and self-confidence is up (s. w. learning, 2011). Conclusion Organizational psychology is defined as the scientific s tudy of individual and group behavior in formal organizational settings. The steps involved in the recruitment and selection process include strategic planning, sourcing candidates, preliminary screening, selection interviewing and the selection. The organizational perspective is to look good to the potential employee. The applicant perspective is to find the right fit. Organizational socialization occurs in three stages: anticipatory, entry/encounter, and change or metamorphosis. References Crosby, D. (2011). What is Organizational Psychology. Retrieved from http://www. monsterthinking. com/2011/07/14/what-is-organizational-psychology/ Jex, S. M. (2002). Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Jex, S. M. & Britt, T. W. (2008). Organizational psychology: A scientist-practitioner approachÃ (2nd ed. ). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Mayhew, R. (2011). What is Involved in the Recruitment & Selection Process in HR? Retrieved from http://www. ehow. com/print/info_8163778_involved-recruitment-selection-process-hr. html S. W. Learning (2011). Organizational Socialization. Retrieved from www. swlearning. com/management/champoux/powerpoint/ch06. ppt
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Differential Effects of American Destabilization Policy in Chile in the 1970s and Cuba in the 1990s Just three years after taking office in 1970, ChileÃ¢â¬â¢s military removed the leftist President Salvador Allende from power. In Cuba, nearly forty years after his ascension to power in 1959, Fidel Castro continues to control a communist regime. In Chile in the early 1970s and in Cuba in the early 1990s, the United States exasperated severe economic crises. In addition, the United States attempted to foster political opposition to create Ã¢â¬Ëcoup climatesÃ¢â¬â¢ to overthrow both leaders. The similarities in these histories end there. ChileÃ¢â¬â¢s open, democratic political system allowed the U.S. to polarize the nation, paving the way for PinochetÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦businesses created two thirds of the $1.6 in foreign investment, and two U.S. copper corporations alone controlled 80 percent of the Chilean copper industry. Under their destabilization strategy, the U.S. undertook economic measures designed to make the Chilean economy Ã¢â¬Å"scream.Ã ¢â¬ The Nixon administration sought to terminate and reduce financing for U.S. exports and guarantees for corporate investment, lobby private investors to curb economic interests, bring Ã¢â¬Å"maximum feasible influence on the multilateral banks to cut their lending to Chile,Ã¢â¬ terminate bilateral economic aid programs, and dump U.S. copper holdings onto the international market, and lower prices. In addition to implementing direct economic measures, the Nixon administration also used its influence to affect the policies of international economic players. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"US officials worked behind the scenes to assureÃ¢â¬ that the World Bank denied 21 million livestock improvement credit and future loans to Chile. The U.S. also blocked negotiations, and putting pressure against Chile in the Paris Club debt negotiations regarding the $1 billion debt that the Frei government had run up in U.S. banks. In sum, these policies were effective. In 1970, loans to Chile were cut from $46 million to $2 million by the IDB, $31 million to $0 by thy World Bank, $110 million to $3 million in bilateral U.S. assistance by the AID, and $280 million to $0 by the Export-Import bank. This significant
Friday, December 27, 2019
I will investigate gender roles alongside misogyny and sexism examining how ideologies have changed overtime focusing on negative and positive representations of women compared to men through crime dramas. Since the feminist movement in the 70Ã¢â¬â¢s various crime dramas have increasing numbers of smart, strong leading female protagonists which is now seen as acceptable, advancing contemporary portrayals of women in television by not conforming to stereotypes eradicating them, helping to battle outdated views showing how views have changed overtime. Men are no longer seen as the hyper masculine alpha detectives and women are no longer just the sidekicks or companions alongside men. We now see interaction among both genders showing teamwork and working together as a unit to keep each other afloat as opposed to dominating authority, suggesting that their masculine or feminine outlook is best. Early crime dramas stereotyped and subverted women as vulnerable and helpless individuals most commonly in secondary roles for example the BBC crime drama Ashes to Ashes involving Alex the female detective inspector and Gene the male detective chief inspector although this crime drama was produced in 2008 it was set in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s showing how the gender stereotypes have been conformed to despite it being made in present times allowing the audience to create a sense of realism for that era. However now women in modern day crime dramas are no longer just an asset but conveyed as robust andShow MoreRelatedGender Roles And Stereotypes1719 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhether it is consciously or unconsciously, we humans tend to characterize people by their gender. Ã¢â¬Å"Often, gender expectations or stereotypes shape our thoughts and interactions with others in subtle yet perceptible waysÃ¢â¬ (Block 1). 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Every culture views gender roles differently, and some cultures are more serious about gender than others. Many times, male and female actions are determined by what a person has been taught is right; furthermore, gender roles are a set of societal norms that are the behaviors that a sex is generally known to do and what is considered accepted of a personRead MoreGender Stereotypes And Gender Roles1261 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbeen expected to act a certain way depending on their sex. These societal expectations are called gender roles. (Rathus, 2010, p.447). These roles begin to develop even before a child is even out of the womb. A mother may decorate thei r nursery pink if they are having a daughter because Ã¢â¬Å"girls like pink,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"boys like blue.Ã¢â¬ Gender roles should not be confused with gender stereotypes. A gender stereotype is a narrow way of thinking about how men and woman are obligated to behave. For example, men haveRead MoreGender Stereotypes And Gender Roles Essay2036 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesalong the development of gender stereotypes and gender roles that have an impact on how children come to understand their own gender identity. Environmental factors such as peers, the media, and even parents perpetuate stereotypes through their own actions. Children come to understand gender during development through experiences that are shaped by their environment and perpetuated by their culture, which ultimately encourages gender stereotypes and conformity to gender roles. Children are born intoRead MoreGender Roles And Gender Stereotypes1856 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesRunning head: Gender roles and gender stereotypes 1 Gender roles and gender stereotypes 8 Gender Roles and Gender Stereotypes Bitavina Shanmugalingam Ryerson University The word Ã¢â¬Å"genderÃ¢â¬ refers to the roles in which society allots for those using Ã¢â¬Å"sexÃ¢â¬ , individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ physical characteristics, as a defining principle for separating roles (Gender, n.d.). The roles in which genders are assigned can come with discrimination, due to the individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ sex, as well as stereotypes, such as theRead MoreGender Stereotypes And Gender Roles1076 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGender stereotypes and gender roles are a largely contested issue in the modern world. Countries around the world have very different gender norms, though there are some recurrent patterns between many cultures. For most recurrent patterns there is a culture who does not abide by those gender norms. There is typically many good reasons for each recurrent pattern that makes sense from an evolutionary standpoint. There is also a significant difference in the way men and women are treated. This is caused